Generally, the efficacy of therapeutic models varies from one to the other based on the situation or problem the client is experiencing. It is important to consider and analyze the condition before applying any model in order to choose the right theory to help the victim overcome the issues. In accordance with the present case scenario, Ana is suffering from stress and depression following challenges she is facing that are caused by different stressors. Ana’s key causes of anxiety are lack of family and supportive friends, loss of a job that has resulted in financial problems, the deployment of her spouse overseas, and the weight of raising their baby by herself.
Goals of Solution-Focused Counselling
The goal for counseling Ana is to enable her to detect when she is making harmful interpretations concerning her condition. The focus is to help her develop constructive behavioral patterns that can relieve her from depression and anxiety. The intervention strategy for this case will be solution-focused based to enable her to find the appropriate ways of managing her conduct to avoid suffering (Akyol & Bacanlı, 2019). The model will dwell on finding suitable answers that would make the client overcome the effects of her stressors within the shortest time possible (Metcalf, 2021). The model allows the patient to engage and relate moments she felt less stressed from the situations. It requires the collaboration of the patient to help in identifying the default pattern of coping with the problems with the help of the therapist.
Process of Treatment
During the therapy session, both the practitioner and the patient work together to set the relevant goals to enable effective solutions to the problems. The therapist asks the client different questions in a friendly manner to gain in-depth on the inner ability and the strengths of the patient, which she might not have realized. In the process, the specialist would also project and acknowledge the effort Ana made to persevere depression and anxiety. The complementary language will make the client shift focus more on the solutions rather than focusing on the issues. The therapy should last for about 20 to 30 minutes once a week for 8 weeks.
To shift the client’s focus to a solution-based mindset, the practitioner would use different techniques such as compliments, coping questions, miracle questions, and scales. While using the approaches, the therapist creates a comfortable environment that would enable Ana to comply and participate effectively in generating answers to her problems (Zhang et al., 2018). Moreover, the questions would be asked in a non-provocative way to ensure the patient does not resist.
This technique involves actively listening to the client’s story to enable the therapist to identify the strengths and the efforts made then focusing them back on the patient while acknowledging their commitments during difficult times. The practice offers the client encouragement, which is necessary to enable her to overcome the problems. Both direct and indirect compliments can be applied simultaneously during the conversation. For instance, if Ana says she has been taking care of the baby alone, a therapist can react by saying that is amazing. The responses make the patient feel and realize her strengths (Nelson, 2018). Similarly, indirect supplements are also sensitive in creating awareness of the victim’s role. The practitioners can use a jovial facial expression when asking some questions.
The approach aims to find different techniques that the client has been using to cope with the situation. The questions asked by the therapist are to enable a deep understanding of how the patient has managed problems previously so that solutions can be tailored in that direction. For example, Ana is suffering from depression and anxiety; practitioner would ask her, ‘how have you been able to go through this tough time for a long period?’ such interrogation would make the patient evaluate herself to identify the potential resources she possesses that enables her to withstand the issues. It can be internal strength or courage that Ana could not realize herself.
The technique entails asking an imaginative question to the client, enabling her to realize that the problem is solved and is not a bother. The miracle question is based on the assumption that it would help the patient be aware of her issues (De Shazer et al., 2021). It aims to identify a particular situation that would allow Ana to know the solution has worked. The imagined probes are essential in making the victim comprehend the nature of the problems and how they impact her life.
The scaling technique is where the therapist uses ratio to determine the extent of the customer is experiencing. The approach makes it easier for the patient and practitioner to know and visualize where they have reached with the issue. For example, Ana can be asked, on a scale of 1 to 100, what is your ability to raise the child alone?’ the method helps evaluate the progress from the first session to the next. At this point, the therapist would know if it is appropriate to terminate the counseling session.
Addressing Social and Cultural Needs of Client
Generally, the solution-focused model promotes an open and interactive conversation with the practitioner, which makes the client feel cared for, a situation that she lacks in her current status. The solution-focused theory facilitated cooperation that allowed Ana to develop the self-esteem necessary to interact with her close relatives and people (Heatherington & Johnson, 2019). Through the process, she feels strong and empowered to handle the challenges she faces. On the basis of cultural perspective, the theory changed her beliefs about solo parenting that she believes is difficult. After the therapy, she can take the responsibility of taking care of the baby (Seko et al., 2021). Therefore, Ana will have a different worldview of the cultural setting that would enable her to manage her parenting situation.
The Connection between Solution-Focused Theory and Constructivist Philosophy
During a counseling session, solution-focused theory encourages patients to look into how they have coped with the problems to help develop a solution for the issue. The aspect incorporates the constructivist idea that suggests people understand the situations they then reflect on. A collaborative approach would allow the patient to identify valuable hidden resources to achieve the set goals by listening to the counselor’s views.
Using Post-Modern/Collaborative Approach
The fundamental principle of the post-modern approach is that the relationship between the therapist and the patient should be collaborative instead of authoritative. In order to prevent possible harm or confusion, counselors should ensure they are aware of their own feelings and behavior so that they do not impact the client. Similarly, practitioners must be informed of the nature of the condition, thus enabling practical focus on the phenomenon.
In summary, solution-focused theory is a vital strategy that can help clients find solutions to their problems. It applies different techniques such as asking questions and effectively collaborating with the patient to understand the extent of the issue. Counselors should be careful and use the right pronouns to avoid cultural fallouts, leading to premature termination of the treatment. Practitioners should develop a good rapport with the victims and allow them to lead towards setting goals. It enables patients to find answers to their problems within a short time.
Akyol, E. Y., & Bacanlı, F. (2019). Building a solution-focused career counselling strategy for career indecision. Australian Journal of Career Development, 28(1), 73-79. Web.
De Shazer, S., Dolan, Y., Korman, H., Trepper, T., McCollum, E., & Berg, I. K. (2021). More than miracles: The state of the art of solution-focused brief therapy. Routledge.
Heatherington, L., & Johnson, B. (2019). Social constructionism in couple and family therapy: Narrative, solution-focused, and related approaches. Web.
Metcalf, L. (2021). Counseling toward solutions: A practical, solution-focused program for working with students, teachers, and parents. Routledge.
Nelson, T. S. (2018). Solution-focused brief therapy with families. Routledge.
Zhang, A., Franklin, C., Currin-McCulloch, J., Park, S., & Kim, J. (2018). The effectiveness of strength-based, solution-focused brief therapy in medical settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 139-151. Web.
Seko, Y., King, G., Keenan, S., Maxwell, J., Oh, A., & Curran, C. J. (2021). Perceived impacts of solution-focused coaching training for pediatric rehabilitation practitioners: A qualitative evaluation. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 41(4), 340-354. Web.