Description of Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic ailment that causes high blood sugar. Diabetes is a fatal disease and is the major cause of end-stage renal disease, adult-onset blindness, and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (Bermejo et al., 2020).

Etiology

Diabetes is caused by defects in insulin secretion, insulin secretion, or both. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreases hence insulin deficiency (DiMeglio et al., 2018). Type 2 diabetes is caused by insensitivity to insulin by the receptors at action sites despite insulin being produced in normal amounts (Oguntibeju, 2019).

Diagnosis Procedures

Normal blood glucose is maintained between 70 to 120 mg/dL, and a deviation from this figure is the diagnosis method. A random plasma glucose test for levels above 200 mg/dL is diagnostic. A fasting plasma glucose test conducted in the morning with a level higher than 126mg/dL is diagnostic (Khan et al., 2019). An oral glucose tolerance test conducted after 2 hours with a level higher than 200 mg/dL is also diagnostic.

Prevention

Diabetes can be prevented by embracing a healthy routine that includes consuming a healthy nutrition with the necessary amount of calories alone. One can adopt exercise that ensures physical fitness and prevents obesity, a risk factor for diabetes. Stress control is also vital to prevent mental stress that is a predisposing factor (Khan et al., 2019). Limiting alcohol intake and avoiding smoking are also crucial to preventing diabetes.

Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes include blurred vision, increased thirst, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, unplanned weight loss. Additional symptoms include frequent urination, slow healing of sores or wounds, and frequent unexplained infections (Khan et al., 2019).

Prognosis

Diabetes mellitus has a poor prognosis as it is a lifelong disease without a cure. The best thing a diabetes mellitus patient can do is maintain their blood glucose level in normal ranges and manage some of the symptoms and arising conditions (Khan et al., 2019).

Treatment

Some of the drugs recommended for diabetes patients include sulfonylureas that increases insulin production. Biguanides reduce liver production of glucose, ensuring the level is within the accepted range. Insulin injections are also crucial in ensuring patients have normal levels of glucose (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). Lifestyle adjustments such as having a healthy diet, avoiding mental stress, and exercising are also crucial in managing the condition.

References

Bermejo, S., González, E., López-Revuelta, K., Ibernon, M., López, D., Martín-Gómez, A., Garcia-Osuna, R., Linares, T., Díaz, M., Martín, N., Barros, X., Marco, H., Navarro, M. I., Esparza, N., Elias, S., Coloma, A., Robles, N. R., Agraz, I., Poch, E., & Rodas, L. (2020). Risk factors for non-diabetic renal disease in diabetic patients. Clinical Kidney Journal, 13(1).

Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Diabetes mellitus: types, risk factors, symptoms, treatments. Cleveland Clinic.

DiMeglio, L. A., Evans-Molina, C., & Oram, R. A. (2018). Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 391(10138), 2449–2462.

Khan, R. M. M., Chua, Z. J. Y., Tan, J. C., Yang, Y., Liao, Z., & Zhao, Y. (2019). From pre-diabetes to diabetes: Diagnosis, treatments and translational research. Medicina, 55(9), 546.

Oguntibeju, O. O. (2019). Type 2 diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress and inflammation: examining the links. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 11(3), 45–63.

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