Type 2 Diabetes Treatment and Role of Technologies

Introduction

The 21st century has brought innovation to diabetology in the form of molecular genetic analysis in the diagnosis of diabetes, followed by a personalized, individualized approach to treatment. Not to the fact that the disease is extremely complex and at the moment, controlled but incurable, science and nurses are extremely effective in the fight against complications. It is inescapable to analyze how the latest technology and reforms in nursing care affect the control and study of diabetes in question.

Role of Technologies

It has become apparent that the disease is not limited to autoimmune type 1. Increasingly, type 2 diabetes, modified (MODY) type, and rarer syndromal forms of diabetes are being identified in patients (Islam, 2020). The true prevalence of type 2 diabetes is thought to be as high as 10% (Islam, 2020, p. 15). Advances in molecular biology now offer great opportunities to identify various symptom complexes into nosologically distinct forms. The importance of diagnosing these syndromes is the competent identification and treatment of the syndrome’s constituent manifestations.

It must be emphasized that the impact of diabetes on the health of the older generation needs to be considered. This is explained by the fact that the patient is Joel, who is an uncle at the time of the study. From the point of view of such patients, technologies allow timely identification of the appearance of such a disease, as it was in the case, and also offer treatment that takes into account the context of age.

Modern science is helping to treat diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, through a number of innovations. The most effective of these are computer programs and mechanisms that measure the indicators required for a diagnosis (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Thanks to the data obtained, specialists understand the amount and dose of drugs. In particular, science has made it possible to develop new drugs that are not administered with an injection but with tablets and vitamins that combine several components at once. The main risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus are age and being overweight: in 60–90% of patients, it is significantly higher than the norm (Islam, 2020, p.56). Although the disease most often develops after age 40, the incidence of diabetes in obese adolescents is on the rise in the United States.

However, there is also a genetic predisposition to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scientists have discovered several genes that are responsible for the function of beta cells in the pancreas. Their presence in the genome is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Environmental factors can increase this risk. Finally, people with metabolic syndrome (a combination of high blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels) are at higher risk for the disease (Islam, 2020). Modern technologies allow to determine the root cause of Uncle Joel’s illness and prescribe treatment based on the data obtained.

Currently, no such specific prophylactic agents have yet been developed, which could be recommended for widespread introduction into practice. Cell technologies are in perspective, especially since it was diabetologists who were the first to raise the question of recreating β-cell mass or pancreatic cells. The most important question of modern diabetology is the prediction of the risk of developing diabetes 2 (Islam, 2020). Genetic determinism is supported by familial aggregation of diabetes two and by studies on hybrid populations with a very high incidence of the disease (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). The search for genetic markers that determine the main pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetes 2 development: insulin resistance and insulin secretion are most justified (Islam, 2020). Thus, modern technology does not provide patients with new drugs enough as it does discover the root causes and prevent the emergence of the disease.

Analysis of Care Methods

Some patients with diabetes can take care of themselves and do not need nursing care. But for many older people with various somatic pathologies or complications of diabetes, professional care is required, the task of which is to systematize both the administration of medications and the planning of a proper diet, exercise, and personal hygiene (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Given that patients with diabetes mellitus often have involutional changes in the brain, it is necessary to monitor the doctor’s instructions and implementation of the necessary recommendations to minimize possible complications of diabetes mellitus.

Complications of diabetes mellitus can be very serious, in special cases fatal. They include complications of the heart, eyes and kidneys, high blood pressure, vascular disorders, and nerve fiber lesions (diabetic neuropathy), which, in some cases, leads to the need to amputate a limb (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Nevertheless, the risk of complications in diabetes mellitus can be greatly reduced by following certain standards, such as blood sugar control, diet, adequate exercise, and appropriate personal hygiene (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Quality patient care can contribute greatly to this. Some of the major complications of diabetes mellitus can be significantly compensated by quality care.

The caregiver and Joel should receive information about the disease and treatments from publicly available information sources and an endocrinologist and dietitian. A healthy diet and physical activity, maintaining a normal weight, and following the doctor’s recommendations for controlling sugar levels are the leading factors for the quality of life of a patient with diabetes (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). If Joel smokes, it is necessary to consult a doctor in order to find a way to get rid of this bad habit (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Smoking increases the risk of various complications of diabetes, including myocardial infarction, stroke, nerve damage, and kidney damage. In fact, diabetic smokers are three times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than non-diabetic smokers.

Normal blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels must be maintained. Same as diabetes, high blood pressure can cause damage to blood vessels (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). High cholesterol can also be a problem for anyone, and with diabetes, the possibility of developing vascular atherosclerosis is greatly increased (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). When there is a combination of these factors, the risk of developing serious complications, such as a heart attack or stroke, increases many times over. Consumption of healthy food, daily physical activity, and taking the necessary medications can control sugar and cholesterol levels.

Nursing Service Standards in This Sphere

Nurses need to follow certain guidelines when caring for people with type 2 diabetes. Thus, the most important rule is permanent contact with the patient and ensuring the most comfortable treatment. Both rules are explained by the fact that, firstly, diabetes can change indicators of the state at any time, and, secondly, stress or fatigue aggravates the disease (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). An important condition is also an accurate definition of the type of diabetes, as the treatment methods differ significantly.

Based on fifty practical hours spent with patients, it becomes clear that the majority are extremely frivolous about diabetes. Therefore, at the same time, it is a difficult and vital task for a nurse to educate a patient on a proper reverent attitude towards the disease. It is important to do this gradually but finally because a sharp introduction to the course of the matter can cause an unstable psychological state of the individual and a sharp reaction.

One of the most important functions of a nurse is the strictest control of Joel’s nutrition. The fact is that it often helps to treat diabetes by reducing weight, for example, by 10 percent (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). This helps control blood sugar levels, and the diet is prescribed by specialists. The nurse should identify Joel’s preferences and contraindications in order to make the treatment as comfortable as possible (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). A calculated diet will make treatment much easier, in addition to maintaining the body’s condition and the balance of substances needed for life. Monitoring blood glucose levels between meals will reveal whether the diet requires changes or modifications.

Finally, maintenance and care methodology must control stress. Human body hormones that are produced in response to prolonged stress can reduce insulin production or decrease tissue sensitivity to insulin (Dunning & Sinclair, 2020). Therefore, it is necessary to get enough sleep, and it is advisable to learn the principles of relaxation to minimize the harmful effects of stress on the body. The patient must be an active and responsible participant in the treatment process. In this regard, the informative role of the nurse increases. The nurse should not only provide Joel with knowledge but also form the need to educate them.

Conclusion

Summing up all of the above, it is necessary to note that the fight against type 2 diabetes is not only in scientific research and achievements. The most important aspect is nursing care, which has to be strict and regimented. From the information that is known about the disease, specialists can conclude that neglecting the care of the patient is extremely detrimental. Therefore, it is the combination of approaches and methods for dealing with the disease that allows controlling the situation and avoiding complications and casualties.

References

Islam, M. S. (Ed.). (2020). Diabetes: From research to clinical practice. Springer International Publishing.

Dunning, T., & Sinclair, A. J. (2020). Care of people with diabetes. A manual for healthcare practice. (5th ed.) Wiley.

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