Type I and II Diabetes: Differences and Similarities

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood glucose levels and disruption in fat and protein metabolism. Because blood glucose cannot be digested in the cells due to a lack of insulin secretion by the pancreas or the cells’ inability to utilize the insulin appropriately generated, blood glucose increases. According to Papatheodorou, “in 2015, approximately 5.0 million deaths were attributed to diabetes” (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). Type one diabetes is characterized by the absence of insulin production by the pancreas. Type two, in which the body cells become resistant to the effect of the insulin generated, and insulin production gradually diminishes over time. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that develops during pregnancy and can lead to problems during labor and delivery, increased risk of type two diabetes in the mother, and obesity in the kids. Furthermore, there are two other types of glucose intolerance: impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired fasting glycemia (IGT), which are intermediate situations between normal and diabetic blood glucose levels. Persons with IFG and IGT have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than people with normal blood glucose levels.

Differences and Similarities

Both types of diabetes are metabolic illnesses that cause blood sugar levels to rising and insulin production to decrease. According to Roglic, “Diabetes has been described in ancient scripts and recognized as a serious illness, but it does not appear to have been frequently encountered by physicians or healers” (Roglic 2016). Both types of diabetes have similar symptoms, but they may appear at various times in people’s lives and have a few significant characteristics that distinguish them. First, type one diabetes is an autoimmune illness that inhibits the pancreas from generating insulin and is thought to be caused by genetics and the environment. Many people in the United States have type two diabetes, which develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin and is directly tied to their family history and lifestyle choices. According to Gaiz, “heart disease is one of the causes of mortality in patients with diabetes, mainly due to the macrovascular complications” (Gaiz et al., 2017). Continue reading to find out everything there is to know about both sorts. The fact that type one is unaffected by people’s lifestyles is a significant difference between the two. That implies that people cannot reduce their chances of having type one diabetes by changing their lifestyles. People under the age of 40, particularly youngsters, are more likely to be diagnosed with it. In reality, type one diabetes affects the majority of youngsters. People beyond the age of 40 can also be diagnosed with it, although it is less prevalent.

Treatment

Insulin injections and blood glucose monitoring are routinely administered to people with type one diabetes, frequently four times a day. A nutritious, low-cholesterol diet and regular exercise can help people control diabetes and preserve overall health. There is currently no treatment to prevent or treat type one diabetes. Treatment for type two diabetes begins with dietary and lifestyle changes. Type two diabetes may frequently be managed by eating a healthy, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and exercising regularly. Oral medicines may be required in some circumstances to boost insulin synthesis in the pancreas. Some people with type two diabetes may additionally require insulin in rare cases.

Risks

When blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high, diabetes develops. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps people’s blood transport glucose throughout people’s bodies to provide energy. Some people do not create enough insulin, or the insulin they do generate does not act appropriately. Glucose thus lingers in patients’ bloodstream rather than being sent to the parts of their body that require it for energy. As a result, blood glucose levels rise, leading to diabetes or prediabetes if they rise too high.

Living with Diabetes

Some people have trouble keeping up with their daily treatment and maintenance needs, but we are here to assist. Diabetes may be stressful, and those who have it are often concerned about potential problems. According to Abuelmagd, “a majority reported physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet included religious fasting” (Abuelmagd et al., 2018). Diabetes patients place a high value on their quality of life. Maintaining an excellent and decent quality of life is critical since it will give people more energy to manage and care for the sickness.

People can avoid or delay the onset of diabetes or limit its effects on their bodies by controlling their weight via good eating and frequent physical activity, quitting smoking, and finding healthy methods to deal with stress. A healthy lifestyle also lowers the chances of getting various medical problems. People can track their blood sugar, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and weight through home monitoring and regular visits with their health care professionals. These vital health indicators reveal how effectively the treatment plan is working to control diabetes and protect overall health, especially the heart. Diabetes can have various health consequences and may necessitate the use of particular drugs and a particular diet. As a result, a person’s health care team may consist of many medical specialists with varied expertise. Their team can assist them in developing a thorough plan to manage their diabetes and its consequences.

References

Abuelmagd, W., Håkonsen, H., Mahmood, K. Q. U. A., Taghizadeh, N., & Toverud, E. L. (2018). Living with diabetes: personal interviews with Pakistani women in Norway. Journal of immigrant and minority health, 20(4), 848-853.

Gaiz, A., Mosawy, S., Colson, N., & Singh, I. (2017). Thrombotic and cardiovascular risks in type two diabetes; Role of platelet hyperactivity. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, 94, 679-686.

Roglic, G. (2016). WHO Global report on diabetes: A summary. International journal of noncommunicable diseases, 1(1), 3.

Papatheodorou, K., Banach, M., Bekiari, E., Rizzo, M., & Edmonds, M. (2018). Complications of diabetes 2017.

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