Diabetes: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


The understanding of the human body parts, how they coordinate, and how the organs keep people alive has been transformed by physiological study, from medieval notions to molecular scientific methods. Diabetes is a chronic disorder that results from inadequate pancreatic insulin production and ineffective use in the body. Compared to high-income regions, the incidence of diabetes has started increasing more quickly in middle- and low-income states. Given the prevalence of diabetes, the public must get medical education regarding the disease. Awareness is crucial for appropriate management, prevention, early identification, and tailored therapy. The types of diabetes, causes of the condition, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are analyzed in this essay.

Types of Diabetes

The three most prevalent forms of diabetes are gestational type 2, and type 1. When a person has type 1 diabetes, their system cannot produce insulin since the immune system targets and kills the insulin-producing tissues in the patient’s pancreas (Chaudhary & Tyagi, 2018). Additionally, type 1 diabetes may develop at any age, but it is generally detected in young children and adolescents. The body of a patient with type 2 diabetes cannot properly produce or utilize insulin. Even though type 2 diabetes may occur at any age, it is more frequently diagnosed in middle-aged and senior individuals. Pregnancy-related gestational diabetes seldom develops in females and often goes away after delivery (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019). Nevertheless, all types of diabetes can be deadly if not managed early.

Causes of Diabetes

Regardless of the form of diabetes individuals have, it can result in too much glucose in the bloodstream because the primary cause of each type differs. The precise cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown to medical professionals. The immune system wrongly destroys pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin. Scientists also believe that genes and environmental triggers like viruses are responsible for developing type 1 diabetes. Cause of type 2 diabetes is a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. Individuals who are overweight, obese, and less physically active are prone to suffer from type 2 diabetes (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019). American Indians, Hispanics, and African Americans are more likely to get the condition, which tends to run in families.

The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and genetic and environmental variables are thought to be the primary causes of gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance, which affects all pregnant women during the last trimester, results from hormones the placenta produces. However, most pregnant women cannot generate sufficient glucose to reverse insulin resistance (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019). Diabetes may also be brought on by genetic abnormalities, other conditions, pancreatic injury, and specific medications. Diabetes is a consequence of damaged beta cells that are less able to create insulin due to trauma, pancreatic cancer, and pancreatitis. Anti-seizure medications and medications intended to manage inflammatory diseases are examples of medications that can damage beta cells and alter how insulin functions.

Indicators and Symptoms of Diabetes

Diabetes affects multitudes of people who are unaware of it. Since the kidneys must work extra hard to filter and collect the extra glucose discharged into the urine, excessive thirst and frequent urination are typical diabetes symptoms. Dehydration from excessive urine in people with diabetes frequently causes them to feel weary. Furthermore, since high blood sugar levels draw liquid from cells, such as the eye lenses, diabetes indicators sometimes include blurry vision because this impairs the ability to focus (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). Diabetes patients endure slower healing of wounds, particularly on the feet, due to impaired blood flow brought on by high blood glucose levels. Recognizing potential diabetic signals can aid with early detection and management, assisting with the condition’s consequences and improving overall health.

Symptoms may vary depending on the type of diabetes an individual suffers from. Additionally, the severity of diabetic symptoms is influenced by blood sugar levels. Some individuals, particularly those with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, might not exhibit any symptoms because these conditions can take months to manifest (Cole & Florez, 2020). Due to the difficulty in identifying symptoms, it is crucial to be aware of the risk elements of type 2 diabetes and to consult a doctor as soon as the factors are identified. Type 1 diabetes symptoms typically come on unexpectedly and are extremely severe. People with type 1 diabetes have abdominal cramps, vomiting, and nausea as symptoms. Contrarily, gestational diabetes typically exhibits no symptoms, and expectant mothers between 25 and 27 weeks of pregnancy should see a doctor and get tested.

Diagnosis of Diabetes

In diagnosing diabetes, physicians utilize blood tests and adhere to expert recommendations. Patients must meet specific requirements for a diabetes diagnosis, which includes signs and a blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or more (Du et al., 2018). Furthermore, the haemoglobin (A1C) result is 6.5% or more, the fasting blood sugar level should equal 126 mg/dL or higher, and the 2-hour oral sugar endurance test result should equal 200 mg/dL or greater for diabetes diagnosis to occur (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019). The haemoglobin (A1C) test, primarily used to detect type 2 diabetes, is a component of a diabetes diagnosis. Ketone levels in the patient’s urine are examined for type 1 diabetes. Once fat and muscle are burned for energy, ketone bodies are created. After the diagnosis, medical practitioners place the patient under a treatment plan depending on the condition’s intensity.

Treatment of Diabetes

Alternatives for treating diabetes are oral medications, insulin, and glucose tracking, based on the type of diabetes. The treatment of diabetes must include a nutritious diet, weight management, and frequent exercise. Patients may monitor and report their blood sugar four times daily, according to the therapy regimen (Sala & Pontiroli, 2020). The only way to ensure that the blood glucose level stays in desired limit is through regular monitoring. Insulin administration is necessary for the survival of patients with diabetes. Diabetes may be controlled by using insulin, which controls blood glucose levels and stores extra sugar for energy (Martinez et al., 2018). Most frequently, oral medications like Metformin are recommended to treat type 2 diabetes.

Sustaining a healthy body mass index through a nutritious meal and workout routine is significant for controlling diabetes and achieving general health. Patients are urged to consume lean proteins, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, even though there is no special diabetes diet to follow (Martinez et al., 2018). These are nutrient-dense foodstuffs with fibre content that have low calories and fat. Since aerobic exercise moves glucose into tissues where it is needed for energy, it reduces blood sugar levels in people with diabetes (Bilous et al., 2021). Additionally, exercise increases the body’s sensitivity to insulin, lowering the amount needed to deliver sugar to cells.


For people with diabetes, the pancreas produces few insulin or uses the hormone inappropriately. Excessive blood glucose stays in the body system when inadequate insulin or cells stop reacting to the peptide hormone. That can result in significant health problems such as frequent urination, exhaustion, blurred vision, and slow wound healing. Diabetes should be promptly identified and managed because having high blood glucose levels can be harmful. The management of this illness heavily relies on diabetes self-management awareness and training.


Bilous, R., Donnelly, R., & Idris, I. (2021). Handbook of diabetes (5th ed.). Wiley Blackwell.

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Cole, J. B., & Florez, J. C. (2020). Genetics of diabetes mellitus and diabetes complications. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 16(2), 377-390. Web.

Du, Y. T., Rayner, C. K., Jones, K. L., Talley, N. J., & Horowitz, M. (2018). Gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes: Prevalence, assessment, pathogenesis, and management. Diabetes Care, 41(3), 627-637. Web.

Forouhi, N. G., & Wareham, N. J. (2019). Epidemiology of diabetes. Medicine, 47(1), 22-27. Web.

Martinez, L. C., Sherling, D., & Holley, A. (2018). The screening and prevention of diabetes mellitus. Primary Care, 46(1), 41-52. Web.

Papatheodorou, K., Banach, M., Bekiari, E., Rizzo, M., & Edmonds, M. (2018). Complications of diabetes 2017. Journal of Diabetes Research, 12(3), 312-321. Web.

Sala, L. L., & Pontiroli, A. E. (2020). Prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in obesity. International Journal of Molecular Science, 21(21), 8178. Web.

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