Milliman, J., & Landon-Murray, M. (2021). City Council and national security: Oversight of local counterterrorism and security intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 36(3), 340-357. doi: 10.1080/02684527.2020.1837450.
This study defines terrorist activities and provides examples of oversight hearings of the New York Committee on Public Safety concerning terrorist activities. Thus, it is possible to distinguish the difference between terrorism and extremism and identify measures to mitigate it. The authors analyze the activities related to intimidation, intimidation of the civilian population, or the threat to human lives or property carried out after September 11, 2011 (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021). Special attention is paid to its most dangerous forms and the legal regulation of consequences for persons responsible for the preparation and commission of terrorist acts. In particular, the authors broadcast the experience of law enforcement agencies and departments in countering terrorism.
At the beginning of the article, a specific problem is stated, and then ways of solving it are described, so it can be considered informative. The proposed method of mitigating the consequences of terrorism and the legal aspects of the issue is appropriate and intended for the chosen niche of national security. To solve the problem, an expert assessment is provided based on many years of experience of official authorities, so this source can be considered credible. The article does not contain errors, stamps and unnecessary information. All the information provided is complete; the language used belongs to the official one and contains a large number of local professional terms.
It was further established that the Committee on Public Safety prohibits the creation and operation of organizations whose goals or actions are aimed at propaganda, justification and support of terrorism or the commission of crimes. It was argued that there is a real exceptional danger for the national community as a whole and for New York, which “represent varieties of terrorism” (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021, p. 356). The authors announced what the prevention of terrorist activity includes (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021). They highlighted the preparation and implementation of “the New York City Police Department and the Committee on Public Safety of a comprehensive system of political, socio-economic, informational, educational, organizational, operational-search, legal, special and other measures”. : They should all be aimed at preventing, detecting, suppressing terrorist activity, minimizing its consequences, and establishing and eliminating the causes and conditions contributing to it”.
The authors of the article are a “Master’s student at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver and an Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs”. Intelligence and National Security Journal, in which the article was published, ranks high among scientific publications, which confirms the publisher’s credibility. The source is valuable to the final project paper because it reveals one of the key national security issues, covering it from various angles. The information obtained from this article can be used in solving issues related to the regulation of terrorism issues when composing the final project paper.
Schanzer, J. (2019). Terrorism. Israel studies, 24(2), 52-56. doi: 10.2979/israelstudies.24.2.05.
This article distinguishes between the concepts of extremism and terrorism. Extremism, which is not touched upon in this article, is the theory and practice of achieving socio-political, religious, and national goals through prohibited methods. Terrorism in the legal literature analyzed by the authors is considered an extreme form of extremism. Terrorism is understood as “a complex socio-political and criminal phenomenon caused by internal and external contradictions of social development”. Next, responsibility for terrorism was considered, that is, “the commission of an explosion, arson or other actions that create a danger of loss of life, causing significant damage” or the onset of dangerous consequences (Schanzer, 2019). Specific examples of actions committed for the purpose of violating public safety, intimidating the population or influencing decision-making by authorities, as well as the threat of these actions for the same purposes, were also given.
The article is supported by numerous facts that are needed for a full study of the issue. They are grouped similarly and are served in blocks, making them easier to understand. The author uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. The text contains the logic of presentation, and the connection between sentences, quotes and surnames of significant personalities. A single style of subheadings makes it easy to navigate through the submitted material and quickly find the necessary information. The author describes the problem, explains why terrorism is dangerous, and gives statistical data and expert opinions. Next, the scientist proceeds to solve the issue, lists the sources, compares them and tells why not all of the proposed methods work. This presentation of the material allows the reader to continue studying the topic, as it indicates unresolved problems in the field of national and local security.
Jonathan Schanzer is an American researcher who is the head of the Department of National Security at the Israeli Academy of Science. The article was published in the Israel Studies journal, whose leadership engages professors of sciences, which testifies to its credibility. In addition, the journal is included in international databases and indexed by the main bibliographic citation databases. The relevance of the problem of terrorism for further research is beyond doubt (Schanzer, 2019, p. 54). The importance of terrorism as a factor of strategic threats to national security has increased significantly. Referring to this article will help to more realistically assess the scale of terrorism as a local threat. This resource will also help identify criteria for maintaining stability and a state of reasonable dynamic protection against the most significant national and local threats and dangers over a long period.
Terrorism is defined as the use of illegal coercion and violence against property or persons with the intent of pressuring individuals or the government to achieve specified social or political goals. International and domestic terrorism are two separate forms of terrorism (Hoffman, 2018). International terrorism is defined as violent criminal acts committed by a group or a person who is affiliated with and motivated by identified international terrorist entities. Domestic terrorism is defined as illegal, violent acts committed by organizations or people to achieve ideological goals stemming from domestic factors such as environmental, racial, social, religious, and political factors. These types of acts are dangerous modes of expression that an ideology may take and possess as a threat to the international community globally. The issue of terrorism persists for a long time and threatens global peace.
There are several varieties of terrorism, each with its own plan and conclusion. Revolutionary, sub-revolutionary, establishment, and cyber-terrorism are the four basic forms of terrorism. The most common type of revolutionary terrorism is one that seeks to abolish or displace a current political system with a new one. The Islamic State’s (ISIS) campaigns in Syria and Iraq, the Peruvian Shining Path, the Basque separatist group ETA, the German Red Army Faction, and the Italian Red Brigades are all recent examples of revolutionary terrorism. The second type, which is less widespread, is sub-revolutionary terrorism. It is defined by the urge to change a present sociopolitical system through threats of overthrowing an existing regime, making it difficult to identify. The third form of terrorism is cyberterrorism, which incorporates unlawful and targeted violations within cyberspace. It is described as the use of threats and assaults on intranets and information held on them, intended to force and frighten a government and its citizens into achieving social or political goals.
The fourth type of terrorism is establishment terrorism, typically carried out by government groups and classified as state-sponsored terrorism. Due to illicit state assistance, government factions operate against foreign parties, countries, and sections inside the current administration, making identification difficult. Instances include the Soviet Union’s assistance for international terrorism during the Cold War and Syria and Iran’s significant budgetary backing to Islamic revolutionary groups fighting the United States and Israel. Terrorism is a persistent problem that affects both the United States as a whole and each individual who lives here. To combat it more effectively, it is essential to comprehend and analyze how it operates. The war on terrorism may appear to be an endless battle, but it is possible to use the right tools to better prepare citizens when the situation arises.
Terrorism is impacted and created for a variety of reasons, one of which is media coverage, which can be both our best friend and worst adversary, depending on how it functions. In opposing political terrorist dynamics, the news media are compelling players (Jetter, 2017). Several terrorist groups have developed an understanding of media dynamics, becoming attentive to audience dynamics and news articles in order to structure their acts more efficiently. Terrorist groups have also gone so far as to own or control media outlets or radio stations (Jetter, 2017). As a result, during 9/11, there was a substantial increase in the security level at key television stations in major cities of the US.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which include chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, contributed to the origin of terrorism. However, extremists often prefer to employ WMD for their personal agenda. Terrorists have garnished the reputation of merciless and crazed extremists due to the records of mass killings and have long-lasting consequences on people’s health and the environment. Cyber weapons and viruses are similarly destructive as they target secret and personal data, which may put the state in jeopardy. To summarize, terrorists may employ various weapons and tactics to validate their cause and reach their goal.
Terrorism has terrible consequences, ranging from mass murders to property devastation and economic consequences. One result is the immediate economic or physical devastation of current transportation infrastructure, machinery, labor resources, and plants. Another effect is on state health, with both a frenzied populace and reacting authorities willing to give up political and economic rights in return for protection after terror incidents. Terrorism entails the government adopting drastic actions such as nationalizing enterprises and imposing price controls, all of which increase inflation, government deficits, and taxation. Terrorism’s final consequence is to heighten international suspicion and nationalism.
Terrorism is a major threat to the United States and the international community, as it jeopardizes states’ citizens’ security, international prosperity, and stability. It necessitates excellent mitigation strategies, with international communities working to combat the threat. It is impossible to combat terrorism simply by issuing a decree which bans the use of firearms (Schanzer, 2019). Following 9/11, New York City developed security intelligence and counterterrorism capabilities that were unique in municipal government in the United States (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021). This meant that counterterrorism intelligence officers were overseen by a local legislature (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021). This function is crucial in preventing wasteful and ineffective actions like the Demographics Mapping Unit and making wise, efficient use of scarce resources (Milliman & Landon-Murray, 2021). Raising awareness of possible risks via constant strategic evaluation and analysis, better intelligence dissemination, and consultations is one of the most effective ways to combat terrorism. NATO, for example, has improved intelligence reporting based on contributions from allies’ military, civilian, external, and internal, as well as intelligence services.
Another countermeasure is to improve appropriate capabilities for responding to, preventing, and guarding against terrorist attacks. The Defense From Terrorism Program, for example, continues to work and build capabilities to defend key infrastructure, people, and the military against terrorist attacks in NATO. States must also plan up safeguards to avoid the development of possible WMDs and their delivery systems and means of acquisition by terrorist organizations. This involves protecting against nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical risks and threats that endanger public security and safety. Homeland Security is working to keep terrorists and related weaponry and supplies out of the country and across all international boundaries as a countermeasure to terrorism in the United States (Bennett, 2017). To prevent the recruitment of new terrorists and destroy homegrown extremism, they adopt methods to impair their capacity to operate within the country’s borders and to intercept the rise of violent Islamic radicalization (Bennett, 2017). There is no key or mechanism to eliminate terrorism, so the ideal approach is to educate the general public while still being watchful in the event of a terrorist attack.
Bennett, B. T. (2017). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.). Wiley.
Hoffman, B. (2018). Inside terrorism (3rd ed.) Columbia University Press.
Jetter, M. (2017). The effect of media attention on terrorism. Journal of Public Economics, 153, 32-48.
Milliman, J., & Landon-Murray, M. (2021). City Council and national security: Oversight of local counterterrorism and security intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 36(3), 340-357.
Schanzer, J. (2019). Terrorism. Israel Studies, 24(2), 52-56.