There are three levels of hybrid automobiles, where each has a different way of integrating the engine (ICE) with the electric motor. The initial level of hybrid technology is a mild hybrid, in which the electric motor is powered by the ICE rather than by the engine that drives the car. Instead, the ICE is supported by the electric motor as it powers the car. The engine of a mild hybrid car receives assistance from a small electric motor, but the engine still provides the majority of the vehicle’s power (Arshad & Ashraf, 2020). Start-up and low-speed operation is handled by the ICE, while greater speeds are handled by the engine. The Honda Insight is a prime example of a moderate hybrid car.
The next phase is full hybrids, which power the vehicle using both an ICE and an electric motor. Both the ICE and the electric motor are powered by the ICE and work together to power the car. A full hybrid vehicle is one that uses both an engine and an electric motor to power itself. Start-up, low-speed operation, and high-speed operation are all performed by the electric motor. When the electric motor is not in use, the engine is used to power the vehicle and recharge the battery. The Toyota Prius is an illustration of a full hybrid car.
Plug-in hybrids, which use the ICE to power the electric motor and the battery to power the car, are at the third level. The battery powers the electric motor, which is utilized to assist the ICE in propulsion of the vehicle. In a plug-in hybrid car, an engine serves as a backup power source in addition to the electric motor that drives the car. Only when the battery is running low is the engine used; otherwise, the electric motor is used at all speeds. The Chevrolet Volt is an illustration of a plug-in hybrid car.
Arshad, M. S., & Ashraf, A. (2020). Hybrid Electronic Vehicles: a general overview. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology, 5(5), 21-26.