Health promotion is a diverse field that aims to include all interested parties involved in medical care. It refers to implementing a wide range of social and environmental interventions that empower individuals and communities to take greater control of their health and improve their health outcomes. It highly depends on intervention strategies and training aimed at altering the environment and behavioral patterns in a way that is beneficial to the community’s well-being to succeed. It tends to do away and minimize health hazards while at the same time maximizing productivity and health, as well as ensuring the cost incurred during the treatment process remains as low as possible. Two health promotion interventions aimed at the same health condition will be discussed and compared in this essay. It will identify the various strategies used to minimize cigarette smoking within society to lower different kinds of cancer emanating from cigarette smoking and the theories and settings utilized by the program.
Health promotion programs are being implemented to raise awareness of the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and encourage people to put that knowledge into action by educating them on the subject. As a result of the program’s emphasis on health-related information, the entire society enjoys a higher standard of living due to the program’s efforts (King et al., 2017). Through participation in this program, participants can maintain and develop a positive attitude toward appreciating and adopting healthy behaviors, which will help them live healthier lives. Patients will be educated and trained on various topics as part of the program, which will be carried out in collaboration with medical professionals and implemented in phases. As a result, it increases public awareness and will increase the program’s overall effectiveness as a whole.
What will be discussed in this essay are the benefits and drawbacks of using medical and educational approaches in conjunction with a health promotion intervention as a whole to minimize cigarette smoking and its adverse effects among smokers and non-smokers within society. The medical approach, also known as the preventive approach, is focused on reducing adverse outcomes and some forms of illness and premature death among individuals in a population, with the ultimate goal of lowering the overall mortality rate. It is generally directed at the entire population, with no particular target in mind. Still, it is mainly concerned with inhabitants at high risk of contracting certain illnesses or health issues in one form or another. In this case, smokers are at a higher risk of contracting smoking-related illnesses and those near the proximity of smokers (King et al., 2017). It is the duty of the health personnel in this situation to advocate for medical intervention that may be necessary to help prevent or even alleviate persons ill health of such persons.
It effectively takes the three essential precautions currently used in health promotion and applies them together. Primary, secondary, and tertiary mitigation are the three stages described above. Deterring the illness is the goal of primary preventive strategies, including enticing smokers to quit their addiction to nicotine. It is frequently regarded as the first step in preventing infection in the general public. Secondary precautionary strategies are those taken to stop or delay the spread of disease. It is frequently used in cases where the disease has already manifested itself but can be brought under control. It is most effective in disease control situations, such as those involving disease outbreaks. Among the methods employed in this instance are screening and various other remedies to slow the transmission of specific infectious agents.
The goal of tertiary management is to minimize the likelihood of further handicap and suffering resulting from an illness. The majority time, this is done on people who are already sick and can be assisted in overcoming the likelihood of further pain and misery. People in this category include chain smokers who are severe addicts and have contracted any form of cancer due to cigarette smoking. Smokers can accomplish it by using therapeutic interventions, palliative care, and patient education on healthy lifestyles. The medical approach is widely accepted in virtually all settings around the world. It could be attributed to the fact that the method uses scientific methods such as epidemiological studies, screening, and research techniques, among other things.
When compared to the process of treating a disease, the prevention and early recognition of an illness are often less expensive. It demonstrates that professionals’ use of a top-down approach to problem-solving strengthens the mandate of healthcare professionals, who are generally perceived as having the necessary skills and capabilities expected to achieve the objectives. Additionally, the above approach has produced favorable results in the past, suggesting that most of the population prefers the medical approach over other alternatives. Because smoking causes many different types of cancer, which can be challenging to treat at later stages once they have developed, this strategy has proven to reduce the harmful effects of smoking.
On the other hand, the medical approach is hampered by some shortcomings. It focuses mainly on the absence of illness rather than the development of positive well-being. It is also entirely based on a health condition’s description, which is imprecise. In addition, the method ignores the human and ecological health aspects, which are incredibly significant in healthcare research and innovation overall. It motivates some degree of reliance on medical experience and some ability to keep up with the treatment protocols that have been established. Also, it is harmful because it attempts to remove the consequences of well-being choices taken in the absence of the individuals involved.
Medical approaches must meet certain conditions to be considered viable in the long run. Most precautionary practices and methods should be based on a justification inferred from the evidence. The assessment of the approach would also have either short-term or long-term consequences depending on the outcome. The short-term consequences of screening or immunization tend to increase with the proportion of the actual target inhabitants being tested or vaccinated. Over time, the long-term effects result in decreased infections associated with mortality.
Despite popular belief, the educational strategy seeks to strengthen individuals to make an educated choice about their wellness by providing relevant skills and information. Rather than trying to compel or encourage a particular course of action, the educational strategy aims to provide a wide range of options based on the desired course of action. Outcomes of this strategy are focused on the client’s personal decision that might differ from the health practitioner’s preferred choice. With this approach, specific hypotheses and restrictions come into play. A shift in mindset and behavior is assumed to occur due to a higher level of knowledge (King et al., 2017). However, some economic and social factors may limit the ability to change one’s behavior voluntarily. It is worth noting that making choices about one’s health is always hard and requires due scrutiny.
Three different forms of learning are involved. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects are all included here. The cognitive dimension offers insight into the causes and implications of these health-related circumstances or behavioral patterns. Health practitioners could achieve the above by using visuals, booklets, and pamphlets. One-on-one conversation, such as verbal counseling, could also accomplish the same. It is also concerned with emotional issues; it gives patients a chance to talk about their feelings and thoughts. Health personnel can use one-on-one guidance and group sessions to accomplish this goal. It is also the behavior process of learning that helps clients develop the decision-making skills they need for a healthier life. Researchers can do it by studying real-world scenarios and using role-playing techniques.
When it comes to improving individuals’ health, numerous and diverse methods can be employed, particularly in the area of health education. We can also evaluate the educational approach because we can improve individuals’ health through various diverse and numerous methods. When it comes to the knowledge that has been successfully applied in real life, on the other hand, it is scarce (King et al., 2017). As a result, it becomes more challenging to determine the success of this approach on an individual basis. The absence of illness and general well-being of the individuals in society may be entirely due to other factors and are not necessary due to the knowledge and skills gained by the individuals.
King, R., Warsi, S., Amos, A., Shah, S., Mir, G., Sheikh, A., & Siddiqi, K. (2017). Involving mosques in health promotion programs: a qualitative exploration of the M-CLASS intervention on smoking in the home. Health Education Research.